Introduction and types of fruits: According to botanists, the fruit is the fertilized and mature ovary of the flower. Fertilization acts as a stimulant in fruit formation. That is why after fertilization, the ovary of the flower changes and expands and gradually attains fullness and becomes a complete fruit.
The ovary of a plant contains the seeds. In addition to fertilization, the ovary or any other part of the flower may become enlarged and mature. Examples of such fruits are banana, apple, and elephant apple. Seeds are not produced without the result of fertilization. Usually, the fruit is produced from a single flower. But in some cases, the whole part of the flower such as stalk, petals, whole flower buds participate in the formation of the fruit.
The pollen produced from the anthers
of the flower stamens produces stem cells. On the other hand, the female germ
cells are produced from the egg located inside the ovary of the female flower.
The union of a suitable male and female gamete is called fertilization. Prior
to fertilization, the pollen grains of the stamens fall into the uterus of the
female in different ways. This fall is called pollination.
Types of fruits
The fruit can be divided into two
parts based on the participation of different parts of the flower in the
process of fertilization from flower to fruit formation. Namely- a) Real fruit
and b) False fruit.
A) Real fruit
After fertilization, if only the ovary of the flower becomes the fruit, it is called real fruit. No other part of the flower participates in the formation of fruit. Such as- Mango, blackberry, coconut, litchi, papaya, guava, etc.
B) False fruit
After fertilization, the helper parts of the flower participate in the formation of fruit. The auxiliary parts of the flower such as stalks, clusters, etc. participate in the formation of fruits. Such as- apple, jackfruit, elephant apple, etc. There is also another type of fruit. For example, parthenocarpic fruit.
C) Parthenocarpic fruit
As a result, the ovaries are not fertilized and are converted. It does not contain any seeds. Such as- pineapple, grape, banana, etc.
Parts of an ideal fruits
An ideal fruit usually consists of two parts. Such as a) Fruit skin and b) Seed. Fruit skin is the wall or outer covering of the ovary of a flower. The skin of the ideal fruit is usually of two types.
(1) Thick and succulent
(2) Thin and dry
1. Thick and succulent
The skin can be divided into three parts. Examples- Mango, blackberry, cool, etc. such fruits. Divide into parts – (a) – external (b) – intermediate skin and (c) – internal skin
(a) External skin: This is the outermost layer of the fruit. This layer is smooth and leathery.
(B) Intermediate skin: The middle layer and the lower layer of the epidermis. This is fleshy and juicy. However, the thickness of this fleshy layer may be more or less in the fruit.
(C) Internal skin: It is the innermost layer of the fruit. As a result of nourishment, this layer becomes quite thick and hard. This layer covers the cotyledons.
2. Thin and dry skin
The skin of the fruit is thin and dry and the seed skin sticks to the skin. With the exception of seed skin and fruit skin, the rest is seed or grain. Examples – paddy, wheat, maize, sorghum, china, etc. (B) Seed: It is covered by the skin. The seeds have two thick and fleshy seed leaves. But the seeds are a bit stiff.
Classification of Fruits
In order to get acquainted (gain, obtain) with the fruit, it is necessary to know a little about the fruit classification. Because the fruit has been divided into different parts. For example:
1. Based on the number of cotyledons of the fruit
A) Monocotyledonous fruit
Palm, coconut, betel nut, date, etc.
B) Dicotyledonous fruits
Mango, gab, jackfruit, etc.
C) Polycotyledonous fruits
Papaya, jackfruit, guava, watermelon, etc.
2. On the basis of pollination
a) Self-pollinated fruits
Amla, guavas, grapes, sapodilla, figs, etc.
b) Cross-pollinated fruits
Mango, blackberry, litchi, papaya, Chinese date, betel nut, pineapple, avocado, etc.
c) Self and Cross-pollinated fruits
Jackfruit, coconut, lemon, almond, pomegranate, etc.
3. On the basis of lifetime
- Short-term fruits
Bananas, papaya, pineapple, watermelon, etc.
- Long-term fruits
Mango, blackberries, jackfruits, coconut, etc.
4. Depending on the nature of the fruit
a) Monocarpic fruit
Banana, cucumber, watermelon, melon, etc.
B) Polycarpic fruits
Mango, blackberry, jackfruit, etc.
5. Depending on the origin or source
a) Real fruits
Mango, blackberries, blackberries, litchis, lemons, papayas, etc.
b) False fruits
Apples, pears, almonds, etc.
C) Parthenocarpic fruits
pineapple, grapes, bananas, etc.
6. Based on the role of inflorescence
A) Simple fruits: Mango, blackberries, coconut, bananas, etc.
fruits: Compound fruits are again of two
- Aggregate fruits: Sugar apple, Raspberry, etc.
- Multiple fruits: Jackfruit, pineapple, etc.
7. Based on the texture of the pericarp
A) Dull or dried fruits: Nuts, betel nut, apricot, etc.
B) Juicy fruits: Juicy fruits are again of five types
- Drupe: Mango, Chinese date, coconut, etc.
- Berry: Banana, Guava, etc.
- Pome: Apples, apples, pears, etc.
- Pepo: Cucumbers, watermelons, melons, etc.
- Hesperidium: Orange, lemons, Key lime, Pummelo, etc.
8. Depending on the climate demand
a) Tropical fruits: Dates, avocado, banana, coconut, Mango, jackfruit, etc.
b) Subtropical fruits: Guava, pomegranate, Chinese date, banana, olive, lemon fruit, avocado, etc.
C) Temperate region fruits: Strawberries, raspberries, peaches, European grapes, etc.
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